Alex is paid to provide that kind of info, so not sure how much detail you'll get!
I can share my experiences with a coach (not Alex) - I need to be clear up front that I don't coach anyone, and what I'm sharing is what has been given to me.
My training doesn't get so specific as to say "this is to develop your sprint for the end of a crit" vs "this is to develop your sprint at the end of an endurance ride". What it does do, is give me workouts that target specific zones, to help me develop in areas that I'm weak. At the moment that's every area
I've never been a serious racer, but would consider myself a serious recreational rider (next year will be my first year of road racing with Penrith).
The program is a fourteen week block that mixes up the stimulus, so that my body never completely adapts to what I'm throwing at it - if I did hill repeats up Yarramundi for six months I expect that I would see some significant improvements that would then trail off as my body became used to doing the same thing day in, day out.
Weeks 1-4 and 6-9 focus on Threshold/SST training. That is a range of 88-95% FTP in blocks of various times, with different rest periods. It also includes a good four hour ride once a week with some hill repeats that gradually increase in count.
Weeks 11-13 focus on V02 with short intervals of 115-120% FTP, and the same weekly long ride where I have to bust a gut on the hill repeats, basically turning them into VO2 sessions.
What's the goal here? Lift my base power/fitness, and then add a bit of punch for attacks, sprints etc.
From what I understand, power is power - riding into a crosswind doesn't require interval training so much as it requires good body positioning. Similarly, if you can generate good power on the flats then you'll be able to generate it on the climbs - the difference is that power/speed on flats is about power/frontal area, while on hills it's more about power/weight.
The thing I find most difficult is pacing. When I'm on the roadie I have my powermeter to help me know that I'm redlining. On the MTB it's much more about perceived effort, and I tend to underestimate how hard I'm working with the inevitable result of blowing up at exactly the wrong point.
If you want some specifics about the intervals I'm doing, drop me a PM. Just realise that they are to address my goals, and may not necessarily help you with yours!
Hope that's of some kind of assistance,